Transitioning to more fuel-efficient aircraft: a model of air traveler response in single-aisle segment


  • Alencar Bravo Université du québec à trois-rivières, Canada
  • Darli Vieira Université du québec à trois-rivières, Canada
  • Geraldo Ferrer Naval Postgraduate School, United States



Fear of flying, Passenger behavior, Boeing, airbus, Embraer


In single-aisle aviation industry, aircraft manufacturers are now fully transitioning to reengineered aircraft types with more efficient power plants, which provide significant environmental advantages. However, the extent to which the customers of various airlines value the availability of remotorized variants of famous aircraft is unclear. We explore passengers’ ticket purchasing behavior in connection to aircraft types, airlines, ticket pricing, and individuals’ degree of fear of flying in this research. We discover that airline selection is mostly determined by ticket price and that a fear of flying has limited impact on consumers’ choice of one airline over another. Individuals who have a significant fear of flying prefer larger aircraft, particularly if the ticket price is high. When the same fearful passengers fly in smaller planes, they seem to shun reengineered aircraft models. Avoiding certain aircraft models seems to be linked to a choice mechanism characterized by a minimum threshold of acceptable familiarity with ticket features on the part of the passenger. If an air ticket has features with a level of unfamiliarity past this threshold, the passenger selects a different alternative.


Adrienne, N., Budd, L., & Ison, S. (2020). Grounded Aircraft: An Airfield Operations Perspective of the Challenges of Resuming Flights Post COVID. Journal of Air Transport Management, 89, 101921. jairtraman.2020.101921Airbus. (2020). AirAsia Receives its First A320neo. https:// airasia-receives-its-first-a320neo.html

Albers, S., & Rundshagen, V. (2020). European Airlines’ Strategic Responses to the COVID-19 Pandemic (January- May, 2020). Journal of Air Transport Management, 87, 101863.

Arat, H. T., & Sürer, M. G. (2018). State of Art of Hydrogen Usage as a Fuel on Aviation. European Mechanical Science, 2(1), 20–30.

Baroutaji, A., Wilberforce, T., Ramadan, M., & Olabi, A. G. (2019). Comprehensive Investigation on Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology in the Aviation and Aerospace Sectors. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 106, 31–40.

Berg, H., Himmelberg, A., & Poojitganont, T. (2020). Hybrid Turbo Compound Fan Engine an Eco-Efficient Propulsion System for Aviation. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (pp. 012010). IOP Publishing.

Berman, J. D., & Ebisu, K. (2020). Changes in U.S. Air Pollution during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Science of the Total Environment, 739, 139864. scitotenv.2020.139864

Bombardier. (2016). 2015: Financial Report. h t t p s : / / i r . b o m b a r d i e r . c o m / v a r / d a t a / g a l l e r y / document/17/30/76/56/14/Bombardier-Financial-Report- 2015-en2.pdf

Bravo, A., & Vieira, D. R. (2019). A Systematic Review of the Civilian Airline Industry: Towards a General Model of Customer Loyalty. International Journal of Business and Data Analytics, 1(2), 156–183. ijbda.2019.104162

Chen, K., Wang, M., Huang, C., Kinney, P. L., & Anastas, P. T. (2020). Air Pollution Reduction and Mortality Benefit during the COVID-19 Outbreak in China. Lancet Planet Health, 4(6), e210–e212. 5196(20)30107-8

Chinazzi, M., Davis, J. T., Ajelli, M., Gioannini, C., Litvinova, M., Merler, S., . . . Vespignani, A. (2020). The Effect of Travel Restrictions on the Spread of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Outbreak. Science, 368(6489), 395–400.

Climate Action Tracker. (2020). International Shipping/ Aviation Assessment- June 2020 Release. http://

Coates, K. S., Healy, R., & Morrison, W. R. (2002). Tracking the Snowbirds: Seasonal Migration from Canada to the U.S.A. and Mexico. The American Review of Canadian Studies, 32(3), 433–450. https://doi. org/10.1080/02722010209481670

Corallo, A., De Maggio, M., & Storelli, D. (2010). SuperJet International Case Study: A Business Network Start-up in the Aeronautics Industry. In G. Passiante (Ed.), Evolving Towards the Internetworked Enterprise (pp. 133–145). Springer., G. (2009). Canadian Snowbirds as Migrants. Canadian Issues, 1, 27-32.

Faiyetole, A. A., & Yusuf, T. B. (2018). Pre-Flight Considerations, in-Flight Services, and Post-Flight Receptions: Factors Influencing Passengers’ International Airline Choices. Journal of Air Transport Studies, 9(2), 1–23.

Fleischer, A., Tchetchik, A., & Toledo, T. (2012). The Impact of Fear of Flying on Travelers’ Flight Choice. Journal of Travel Research, 51(5), 653–663. https://doi. org/10.1177%2F0047287512437856

Forsyth, P., Guiomard, C., & Niemeier, H. M. (2020). Covid -19, the Collapse in Passenger Demand and Airport Charges. Journal of Air Transport Management, 89, 101932.

Gardiner, S. M. (2011). A Perfect Moral Storm: The Ethical Tragedy of Climate Change. Oxford University Press.Gegg, P., Budd, L., & Ison, S. (2014). The Market Development of Aviation Biofuel: Drivers and Constraints. Journal of Air Transport Management, 39, 34–40. https://

Gomes, S. B. V. (2012). A Indústria Aeronáutica No Brasil: Evolução Recente e Perspectivas. Rio de Janeiro: Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social. https://

Gomes, S. B. V., Barcellos, J. A., & Tucci, N. (2018). Embraer e Boeing Vis-à-Vis Airbus e Bombardier: Quais as Implicações Para o Brasil? BNDES Setorial, 47, 63–121.

Gössling, S., Scott, D., & Hall, C. M. (2020). Pandemics, Tourism and Global Change: A Rapid Assessment of COVID-19. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 29(1), 1–20.

Graver, B., Rutherford, D., & Zheng, S. (2020). CO₂ Emissions from Commercial Aviation: 2013, 2018, and 2019. CO2-commercial-aviation-oct2020.pdf

Gurcan, O. F., Beyca, O. F., Akcan, A. F., & Zaim, S. (2019). A Customer Satisfaction Study in an Airline Company Centered in Turkey. In F. Calisir, E. Cevikcan, & H. C. Akdag (Eds.), Industrial Engineering in the Big Data Era (pp. 377–388). Springer. 030-03317-0_31

Hagmann, C., Semeijn, J., & Vellenga, D. B. (2015). Exploring the Green Image of Airlines: Passenger Perceptions and Airline Choice. Journal of Air Transport Management, 43, 37–45. jairtraman.2015.01.003

Hari, T. K., Yaakob, Z., & Binitha, N. N. (2015). Aviation Biofuel from Renewable Resources: Routes, Opportunities and Challenges. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 42, 1234–1244. rser.2014.10.095

Hensher, D. A., & Greene, W. H. (2003). The Mixed Logit Model: The State of Practice. Transportation, 30(2), 133– 176.

Ibn-Mohammed, T., Mustapha, K. B., Godsell, J., Adamu, Z., Babatunde, K. A., Akintade, D. D., . . . Koh, S. C. L. (2021). A Critical Analysis of the Impacts of COVID-19 on the Global Economy and Ecosystems and Opportunities for Circular Economy Strategies. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 164, 105169. resconrec.2020.105169

Jones, S., & Hensher, D. A. (2004). Predicting Firm Financial Distress: A Mixed Logit Model. The Accounting Review, 79(4), 1011–1038. accr.2004.79.4.1011

Khalil, Y. F. (2017). Eco-Efficient Lightweight Carbon- Fiber Reinforced Polymer for Environmentally Greener Commercial Aviation Industry. Sustainable Production and Consumption, 12, 16–26. spc.2017.05.004

Kim, S. B., & Park, J. W. (2017). A Study on the Importance of Airline Selection Attributes by Airline Type: An Emphasis on the Difference of Opinion in between Korean and Overseas Aviation Experts. Journal of Air Transport Management, 60, 76–83.

Kurtulmuşoğlu, F. B., Can, G. F., & Tolon, M. (2016). A Voice in the Skies: Listening to Airline Passenger Preferences. Journal of Air Transport Management, 57, 130–137. https://

Medina-Muñoz, D. R., Medina-Muñoz, R. D., & Suárez- Cabrera, M. Á. (2018). Determining Important Attributes for Assessing the Attractiveness of Airlines. Journal of Air Transport Management, 70, 45–56. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.jairtraman.2018.01.002

Milioti, C. P., Karlaftis, M. G., & Akkogiounoglou, E. (2015). Traveler Perceptions and Airline Choice: A Multivariate Probit Approach. Journal of Air Transport Management, 49, 46–52.

Nicola, M., Alsafi, Z., Sohrabi, C., Kerwan, A., Al-Jabir, A., Iosifidis, C., Agha, R. (2020). The Socio-Economic Implications of the Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19): A Review. International Journal of Surgery (London, England), 78, 185–193.

Petrescu, R. V. V., Aversa, R., Akash, B., Corchado, J. M., Berto, F., Mirsayar, M., . . . Petrescu, F. I. T. (2017). Home at Airbus. Journal of Aircraft and Spacecraft Technology, 1(2), 97–118.

Piancastelli, L., Cassani, S., Calzini, F., & Pezzuti, E. (2018). The Decisive Advantage of CRDID on Spark-Ignition Piston Engines for General Aviation: Propeller and Engine Matching for a Specific Aircraft. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 13(13), 4244–4252. handle/2108/203243/399906/jeas_0718_7194-1.pdf

Pongpirul, K., Kaewpoungngam, K., Chotirosniramit, K., & Theprugsa, S. (2020). Commercial Airline Protocol during COVID-19 Pandemic: An Experience of Thai Airways International. PLoS One, 15(8), e0237299. https://doi. org/10.1371/journal.pone.0237299

Pratt, & Whitney. (2020). Pratt & Whitney GTF Engine. commercial-engines/pratt-and-whitney-gtf

Safran. (2011). LEAP: Greener, More Efficient. https://

Schäfer, A. W., Barrett, S. R. H., Doyme, K., Dray, L. M., Gnadt, A. R., Self, R., . . . Torija, A. J. (2019). Technological, Economic and Environmental Prospects of All-Electric Aircraft. Nature Energy, 4(2), 160–166. https://doi. org/10.1038/s41560-018-0294-x

Serrano, F., & Kazda, A. (2020). The Future of Airport Post COVID-19. Journal of Air Transport Management, 89, 101900.

Sobieralski, J. B. (2020). COVID-19 and Airline Employment: Insights from Historical Uncertainty Shocks to the Industry. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 5, 100123.

Staack, I., Sobron, A., & Krus, P. (2020). The Whole Truth about Electric-Powered Flight for Civil Transportation: From Breguet to Operational Aspects. 7th CEAS Air & Space Conference, Aerospace Europe Conference (pp. 25-28). AEC2020_ElectricAircraft_I-Staack_paper335.pdf.pdf

Staples, M. D., Malina, R., Suresh, P., Hileman, J. I., & Barrett, S. R. H. (2018). Aviation CO2 Emissions Reductions from the use of Alternative Jet Fuels. Energy Policy, 114, 342–354.

Stewart, S. (2014). Flying the Big Jets. Crowood.

Suau-Sanchez, P., Voltes-Dorta, A., & Cuguero-Escofet, N. (2020). An Early Assessment of the Impact of COVID-19 on Air Transport: Just Another Crisis or the End of Aviation as we Know it? Journal of Transport Geography, 86, 102749.

Teal, M. (2014). New 737 MAX: Improved Fuel Efficiency and Performance. Boeing AERO Magazine.

Teketay, D. (2017). Assessing the Factors that Contribute for the Performance of Cfm56 Engine in the Case of Ethiopian Airlines. Addis Ababa University.Vieira, D., & Bravo, A. (2016). Life-Cycle Costing of an Aircraft Wing Project with Innovative Materials using an Eco-Demonstrator. International Journal of Product Development, 21(5/6), 394–413. IJPD.2016.083624

Vieira, D. R., & Bravo, A. (2016). Life Cycle Carbon Emissions Assessment using an Eco-Demonstrator Aircraft: The Case of an Ecological Wing Design. Journal of Cleaner Production, 124, 246–257. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.02.089

Wood, R. L., & Gokhale, J. S. (2017). US Airline Stock Market Performance and Change in Investor Behaviour Over the Great Recession of 2008. International Journal of Economics and Accounting, 8(3/4), 215–239. https://

Yilmaz, N., & Atmanli, A. (2017). Sustainable Alternative Fuels in Aviation. Energy, 140, 1378–1386. https://doi. org/10.1016/




How to Cite

Bravo, . A. ., Vieira , D. ., & Ferrer , G. (2022). Transitioning to more fuel-efficient aircraft: a model of air traveler response in single-aisle segment. The Journal of Modern Project Management, 10(1), 92–109.