Scope Patterns for Projects Modeled as Sociotechnical Systems
This paper examines the treatment of scope as project attribute, arguing that an improved representation will allow increased fidelity of project plan trade space enumeration and preferred plan selection. Cost, schedule, and scope are emergent characteristics of a project’s integrated architecture, activities, and resources uniquely for a project at hand. System engineering as commonly practiced places strong, early emphasis on product architecture and requirements, including enumeration of system options prior to interplay with aspects of project implementation. As such, system options are often framed and pruned prior to effective examination of project feasibility. Characteristics of scope are presented suitable for model-based design of projects. Scope is defined as the tangible outcomes of project tasks. Scope items should be useful in the evolution of project knowledge and interplay with requirements and resources. Target-neutral, resource-nominal, and exception-realistic patterns of scope are described.